Since mid-2020, when stringent restrictions were imposed to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation has been running at multi-decade highs in many countries across the globe. In 2022 in particular, inflationary pressures from pandemic-related disruptions were exacerbated by the Russo-Ukrainian War and spiking food and energy prices. In response, central banks implemented different monetary policy approaches in an attempt to stabilize the situation. Against this background, recent inflationary trends and monetary policy approaches adopted by economically diverse Black Sea countries are analyzed and compared in this issue of Black Sea bulletin.
The Black Sea region is often referred to as a gateway between Europe and Asia, though its potential benefits are far from being fully realized. This is especially true for the naval trade. Meanwhile, the enhancement of maritime transportation and the improvement of port infrastructure becomes more and more desirable if not indispensable for economic development of the region.
Recent drastic changes – namely the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, which has further exacerbated the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, are significantly hindering this development. At the same time, it is yet ambiguous how the war might alter the development of maritime trade in the region. Accordingly, this bulletin aims to analyze the pre-war state of the Black Sea region’s logistics, port activity, and shipping connectivity and then provide some insights into the potential impact of the ongoing war.
In this bulletin, we discuss the positions held by Black Sea countries in various international rankings (indicators and indices). This helps us to understand and assess how those states are performing in different areas, to detect what similarities and differences can be found between the countries of the region, as well as to compare the performance of Black Sea countries with that of the rest of the world.
A year and a half since the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the world has entered a new phase in which the race to vaccinate is shaping the path for post-pandemic recovery and economic growth. In this bulletin, we review the dynamics of the virus spread and the extent of the economic recovery being achieved by the countries of the Black Sea region.
The spread of COVID-19 has resulted in a global pandemic, followed by an abrupt economic crisis due to the necessary measures taken to reduce infection and death rates. In this bulletin, we focus on the countries of the Black Sea region, specifically their preparedness for an economic crisis and their actual economic performance during the pandemic, before presenting forecasts for 2021.
The spread of novel coronavirus COVID-19 has resulted in global pandemics, which was followed by an abrupt economic crisis, as economies stood still in order to overcome the threat to people’s lives. In this bulletin, we overview the readiness to the healthcare and economic crisis, the evolution of the pandemic and characteristics of the lockdown for the six countries in the Black Sea Region.
Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the world. It creates three hundred million jobs and accounts for 10% of global GDP. This bulletin reviews the tourism sectors of countries bordering the Black Sea in the last 6 years. The analysis is centered on the number of visits, dynamics, and the relationship between tourism and economic growth.
In this bulletin, we discuss exchange rate dynamics in the countries of the Black Sea region during the period of 2014-2018. In particular, the exchange rates of these countries’ currencies against the USD and EUR…