Policy Papers
Gender Pension Gap in Georgia: Gender Disparities within Georgia’s Funded Pension Scheme

The research study analyses the gender aspects of Georgia's accumulated pension system and assesses the potential gender disparity in pensions between women and men.

Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience in Georgia: State of Play and Future Prospects

In an era where critical infrastructure security and resilience (CISR) has become paramount to national security, economic stability, and public safety, nations are increasingly recognizing the importance of bolstering their protective measures and governance models. Georgia stands on the cusp of a significant reform, aimed at enhancing its critical infrastructure security and resilience. This policy paper presents an initial analysis of Georgia’s current critical infrastructure protection (CIP) landscape as well as insights from the governance models of two EU Member States, and sets out a potential path forward that could serve to safeguard Georgia’s infrastructural assets and align its policies with global best practices.


NTFP Value Chain Analysis in Guria, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, and Kakheti

Currently, the potential of the economic value of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) largely goes unnoticed in official statistics and research publications despite NTFPs being important natural resources that support sustainable bioeconomy value chains, green jobs, alleviation of poverty, and economic and social development. The purpose of the assessment is to overview the existing literature on NTFPs, select the priority NTFPs and provide additional insights regarding the NTFP value chain in Georgia, with an additional focus on target regions.

Despite the data limitations, the analysis shows the increasing global demand for NTFPs and the potential for the development of NTFP sectors in Georgia. On the other hand, the NTFP value chain in target regions (Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Guria, and Kakheti) has further potential for development considering the abundance of selected organic wild NTFP products on their territories. However, issues like the lack of labor force, lack of knowledge on sustainable harvesting and product diversification, and the number and capacity of the processing enterprises create hindrances to the development of the value chain and higher inclusion of local vulnerable groups with an aim to improve the general socio-economic situation in rural areas.

This document has been prepared by PMC Research within the framework of the project “Enabling the Implementation of Georgia's Forest Sector Reform - ECO.Georgia”, funded by the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC) and the Government of Georgia (GoG) and implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia (MEPA), through its subordinated agencies and the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development of Georgia (MoESD).

Trade in Black Sea Countries

The war in Ukraine has significantly altered trade dynamics in the Black Sea region. Firstly, it has created security challenges and increased tensions between countries. On the other hand, it has also unlocked opportunities to utilize the potential of the Black Sea as a strategic location and international transport route. With this context in mind, it is important to analyze intra-Black Sea countries’ trade, to identify the patterns and volumes of goods exchanged among these countries, and to determine the dynamics of regional economic cooperation and transportation networks. This bulleting provides analysis of the trade data of Black Sea countries and present the main trends in trade in and among Black Sea countries and provides some recommendations on how to both address existing challenges and realize opportunities

Retail Trade Sector in Georgia

The retail industry is one of the important drivers of the Georgian economy. Therefore, it is important to analyze the current situation and future prospects of the sector to identify existing challenges and opportunities of the sector. Additionally, the research aims to share the specifics of the sector and its economic importance to the general public and, as a result, to raise awareness in this direction.

The research structure of the retail trade sector includes an overview of the Georgian retail value chain processes, analysis of key sector indicators, financial indicators, and challenges in the sector.  At the last stage of the research, based on the main findings, recommendations are developed, the purpose of which is to eliminate the challenges in the sector and promote the development of the sector. 


Challenges and Forms of Labor Relations in Georgia's Public Service

The study examines the challenges faced by state agencies regarding various forms of labor relations, and embraces the perspectives of multiple stakeholders.

The study had two primary objectives: to analyze common challenges related to labor relations among civil servants; and to assess the need to identify additional categories of personnel within state agencies that might require specific regulations. Based on the research findings, the study issued recommendations to tackle the challenges highlighted.

The research was conducted with the support of UNDP and the UK government, with the aim of promoting cooperation between civil society organizations (CSOs) and state institutions regarding ongoing public administration reform topics.


Household Income and Income Inequality in Georgia ( 2013-2022)

This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of household income distribution in Georgia. It presents an analysis of income inequality beyond the traditional Gini coefficient by examining additional dimensions of income distribution. More precisely, the paper compares the income of different segments of society, household income in rural and urban areas, and between regions.


Determining the Prime Cost of Railway Transportation and Identifying Variable Components

This paper set out to provide transportation planners and policymakers with a systematic process through which to estimate costs representative of the area and service in question and to ease their analysis and decision-making procedures. Although the methodology presented herein is not meant to replace the in-depth and detailed feasibility studies or professional railroad planning activities, it can be used as an intermediate tool to allow planners to more easily perform railroad analysis and planning activities, prior to contracting out feasibility studies. Finally, should this research be further developed, it ought to address other categories of railway services, such as intercity and high-speed trains.


Inflation and Monetary Policy in Black Sea Countries

Since mid-2020, when stringent restrictions were imposed to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation has been running at multi-decade highs in many countries across the globe. In 2022 in particular, inflationary pressures from pandemic-related disruptions were exacerbated by the Russo-Ukrainian War and spiking food and energy prices. In response, central banks implemented different monetary policy approaches in an attempt to stabilize the situation. Against this background, recent inflationary trends and monetary policy approaches adopted by economically diverse Black Sea countries are analyzed and compared in this issue of Black Sea bulletin.

Total Defense: The Strategy On How To Defeat Strong

Russia’s full-scale military aggression and the ongoing war in Ukraine have led to a fundamental overhaul of the West’s defense and security policy and practice. In addition, a large-scale conventional war on European soil and the successful defensive operation of Ukraine has prompted defense and security professionals to reconsider the importance of total (comprehensive) defense.

The total defense system was established during the Cold War in non-NATO member states that faced threats from a superior adversary. The concept has adapted to new security challenges and evolved from a comprehensive defense system to a comprehensive security model.

Since 2017 Georgia has been trying to build its defense and security system on the principle of total defense. However, it has not yet approved the necessary political and strategic guidelines, conceptual framework, implementation plan, and assigned resources.

Based on the Baltic and Nordic States case study, the paper identifies the critical conditions for implementing an effective and efficient total defense system and assesses the state of play in Georgia consistent with the case study’s findings.