Policy Papers
Inflation and Monetary Policy in Black Sea Countries

Since mid-2020, when stringent restrictions were imposed to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation has been running at multi-decade highs in many countries across the globe. In 2022 in particular, inflationary pressures from pandemic-related disruptions were exacerbated by the Russo-Ukrainian War and spiking food and energy prices. In response, central banks implemented different monetary policy approaches in an attempt to stabilize the situation. Against this background, recent inflationary trends and monetary policy approaches adopted by economically diverse Black Sea countries are analyzed and compared in this issue of Black Sea bulletin.

Total Defense: The Strategy On How To Defeat Strong

Russia’s full-scale military aggression and the ongoing war in Ukraine have led to a fundamental overhaul of the West’s defense and security policy and practice. In addition, a large-scale conventional war on European soil and the successful defensive operation of Ukraine has prompted defense and security professionals to reconsider the importance of total (comprehensive) defense.

The total defense system was established during the Cold War in non-NATO member states that faced threats from a superior adversary. The concept has adapted to new security challenges and evolved from a comprehensive defense system to a comprehensive security model.

Since 2017 Georgia has been trying to build its defense and security system on the principle of total defense. However, it has not yet approved the necessary political and strategic guidelines, conceptual framework, implementation plan, and assigned resources.

Based on the Baltic and Nordic States case study, the paper identifies the critical conditions for implementing an effective and efficient total defense system and assesses the state of play in Georgia consistent with the case study’s findings.

Sector and Value Chain Analytics: 2022

The report provides an analysis of economic trends in Georgia, as well as denoting the challenges and opportunities (in local, regional, and global contexts) across selected value chains within six sectors to improve evidence-based decision-making through the provision of quality information and analytics. The specific sectors are tourism, creative industries, light manufacturing, shared intellectual services, waste management and recycling, along with cross-cutting sectors. The analysis tracks trends of 2022. This report was developed by PMC Research Center and ISET Policy Institute within the USAID Economic Security Program.

Assessment of Asylum Seeker, Refugee and Humanitarian Status Holder Youth in Georgia

A study of the “Assessment of Asylum Seeker, Refugee and Humanitarian Status Holder Youth in Georgia” has been prepared by PMC Research with the support of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The study’s overall objective was to assess the current situation of asylum seekers, refugees, and humanitarian status-holding youth (i.e. those aged 14-291) in Georgia, including with respect to their access to rights and services. The study was conducted in December-March 2023.

The Governance Model of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and External Mechanisms of Educational Quality Development in Georgia

The study analyzes the development of the governance model of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Georgia and external mechanisms used to evaluate the quality of education in Georgia in relation to the policies and processes currently prevalent in European education systems. The aim of the study was to develop recommendations for policymaking and implementing bodies, taking into account the identified gaps and shortcomings.


Stablecoins in Georgia: International Regulatory Practices and Policy Recommendations for the Georgian Government

This paper thoroughly examines the existing Georgian cryptocurrency laws to identify their primary shortcomings. Moreover, it analyzes the bills proposed in the EU and the United States. After examining the local regulatory environment, comparing it to international practices, and considering the idiosyncrasies of the Georgian economy, the paper also proposes amendments to improve the existing policy.


Shortfalls of Deliberative Democracy in Georgia: Analysis of the General Assembly of a Settlement

This study was written by our researcher, and was published in the European Sociological Association’s European Societies journal. Tap on the title to access the full article.

Shortfalls of Deliberative Democracy in Georgia: Analysis of the General Assembly of a Settlement 

Simple But Not Simplistic: Findings from a Theory-driven Retrospective Evaluation of a Small Projects Program

ScienceDirect’s Evaluation and Program Planning international journal recently published this article written by our researchers. Tap on the title to access the full article.

Simple But Not Simplistic: Findings from a Theory-driven Retrospective Evaluation of a Small Projects Program



Study of the Needs of Ukrainian Refugees in Georgia

The unprovoked Russian invasion of Ukraine not only disarranged the economic and political state of the world but also worsened the lives of millions of Ukrainians. Since the war began, more than 7 million refugees have left Ukraine and Georgia is among the countries Ukrainian refugees arrived after the start of the war. To assess Ukrainian refugees’ needs, education, skills and the labor market integration process in Georgia , PMC Research Center with the support of Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung conducted a study in August-December 2022. Moreover, the study intends to produce recommendations for stakeholders to develop need-based services and support Ukrainian refugees' integration into the Georgian labor market.

Maritime Trade in the Black Sea in the Context of the Russo-Ukrainian War

The Black Sea region is often referred to as a gateway between Europe and Asia, though its potential benefits are far from being fully realized. This is especially true for maritime trade - the Black Sea region’s share in international maritime trade is only just 2.5%, while the North Sea region accounts for 17%. And despite there being huge potential in the enhancement of port infrastructure and connectivity in the Black Sea region countries, the varying and distinctive geopolitical orientations of these countries largely hinder any significant advancement in regional cooperation.

The problem became even more severe with the latest military conflict in the region – the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, which besides aggravating cooperation problems has significantly shaken up the landscape of the Black Sea’s port infrastructure and maritime trade in the region and the security dynamics not only in the wider Black Sea region, but it has also affected the European and, arguably, global security architecture.