This study compares the following four alternatives: keeping the status quo (Option 1); the 2009 Tbilisi Railway Bypass Project (Option 2); a city tunnel from Navtlughi district to Didube district (Option 3); and retaining the city’s main railway line and central station, but relocating all other railway infrastructure from the Didube-Nadzaladevi districts to the city’s peripheral districts (Option 4).
This paper has identified a clear interconnection between the BRI and Georgia’s economic development strategy in terms of infrastructure development and trade facilitation. Furthermore, this paper has suggested that Georgia could leverage the advantages of its trade agreements (DCFTA with the EU; FTA with China) and favourable business environment to be an important transit hub in the South Caucasus region and beyond.
This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of People in Need and PMC Research Center and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. The policy study presents recommendations on improving the state programme “Plant the Future.”
The research has been produced with the financial assistance of European Union within the project "Improving Regional Food Security in the South Caucasus through National Strategies and Small Holder Production".
During the past decade, Georgia reformed its health sector and achieved a decline in child and infant mortality, a reduction in expenditure of inpatient services, an improvement in accessibility, equity and affordability of healthcare services. However, healthcare still remained unaffordable for almost half of the population, and people were spending a large share of their income on out-of-pocket expenses in comparison to other low-and medium-income countries.
European Union’s (EU) strategic interest and relations with Georgia have been developing over past years. In this period, Georgia significantly deepened its ties with the EU. On the one hand, EU’s strategic interest and on other hand, Georgia’s considerable progress in the reforms maintained to implement EU’s foreign policy initiatives in Georgia such as the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the Eastern Partnership (EaP). These initiatives are aimed at economic development, fostering democracy, equality, rule of law and strengthening human rights credentials. In general, EU-Georgia relations have been centred on three main issues: assistance to political and economic transition processes, conflict resolution and support to the development of the energy potential of the country.
The paper attempts to analyse possibilities for energy transit from Iran to Georgia and further to the Western markets that have recently opened to energy supplies from Iran as international sanctions have been lifted. Iran, estimated to be the world's fourth-largest country by proven oil reserves1, and first or second by gas reserves2, is in the process of reclaiming its share of gas and oil exports to the world, and in particular to Europe.
Armenia’s decision to join the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) exempted traders from union member countries from paying value added tax (VAT) and excise tax, thus putting Georgian traders in a disadvantaged position and breaking the main principles of the FTA between Georgia and Armenia.